Project Pane - Paste as Surface

The Paste as Surface dialog appears when we copy a component and paste it as a surface.

 

Pasting Images as Surfaces

 

Take Z From

Specify the channel value that will be used for the elevation. An RGBa image, for example will offer Alpha, Red, Blue, Green or Intensity choices.

Minimum Z

What elevation the lowest pixel value corresponds to.

Maximum Z

What elevation the highest pixel value corresponds to.

(units box)

Units of measure to be used.

 

Pasting Tables as Surfaces

 

X / long

Choose which field in the table should be used for an X or longitude coordinate.

Y / lat

Choose which field in the table should be used for a Y or latitude coordinate.

Latitude / longitude coordinates

Check if the values in the X / long and Y / lat boxes are in degrees latitude and longitude. If this box is not checked the surface will be created in Orthographic projection treating the X and Y values as meter-based coordinates.

Height

Choose the field to be used for elevation values for the surface.

Type

The data type to use for elevation values in the surface. If the originating field is a different type, Manifold will convert to the given type when writing to the surface.

Margins

Margins in the specified unit of measure (shared with the Pixel Size combos) in X and Y directions that the surface should be extended beyond the bounding box of the objects or records being pasted to create the surface. This allows extending the created surface by some margins beyond the data being pasted to create the surface, allowing some interpolation at the edges for smoother edge effects in some cases. 0 by default.

Pixel Size

Size of pixels in the created surface, in the specified unit of measure.

Same size in X and Y direction

If checked (default), any edits in the X pixel size will also update the Y pixel size, for "square" pixels.

Method

Gravity, Kriging, Median-Polish Kriging, No Interpolation or Triangulation (flat). The type of interpolation algorithm (model) used to create the surface. Options other than Kriging will appear only if the optional Surface Tools extension has been installed.

Neighbors

Appears when using the Gravity, Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method. The number of neighboring points to consider when making the interpolation. Manifold will automatically use all points as neighbors for interpolations up to 1000 points. Note that it is faster to use all points as neighbors up to 1000 points than it is to use some subset of points (such as, only 990 neighbors out of 1000 points).

Model

Appears when using the Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method.

Auto (default), Exponential, Gaussian, Linear, Power, Rational or Spherical interpolation models. The Auto setting allows Manifold to choose which of the interpolation models it thinks will work best in this case.

Linear, Power, Rational or Auto choices will appear only if the optional Surface Tools extension has been installed.

Use only Voronoi neighbors

Interpolate over each location using only those neighbors that would be adjacent in a Voronoi diagram. This helps achieve a balance between a too-smooth interpolation achieved with a high number of neighbors and a too-coarse interpolation achieved with a low number of neighbors. Using this option will increase processing time.

Use radius

Appears when using the Gravity, Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method. The distance in the given units from any data point over which an interpolation can extend. Not checked by default to allow Manifold to choose the radius.

Save error surface as

Appears when using the Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method.

Allows saving of an error surface using the given numeric type.

Set corner values to

Appears when using the triangulation method. Optionally set the values in the corners of the computed surface to the given values. If this option is used, the entire surface (to the full rectangular extents) will be interpolated using the corner values as anchors. If this option is not used, those regions outside the convex hull of the existing data points will remain invisible.

 

Pasting Drawings as Surfaces

 

Pasting a drawing as a surface is similar to pasting a table as a surface except that there is no need to specify the fields to be used as latitude and longitude, since the coordinates of objects in the drawing are built into the geometry of the drawing.

 

Likewise, there is no need to specify whether the coordinates are latitude and longitude coordinates, since the coordinate system used by the drawing is also known. When pasting a drawing as a surface, the surface will inherit all projection parameters from the drawing.

 

When pasting a drawing as a surface, Manifold can use point and line objects to create a surface. Point objects are taken as point data from which the surface is interpolated. Line objects will have point data created at each coordinate ("inflection point") that defines the line.

 

Height

Choose the field to be used for elevation values for the surface.

Type

The data type to use for elevation values in the surface. If the originating field is a different type, Manifold will convert to the given type when writing to the surface.

Margins

Margins in the specified unit of measure (shared with the Pixel Size combos) in X and Y directions that the surface should be extended beyond the bounding box of the objects or records being pasted to create the surface. This allows extending the created surface by some margins beyond the data being pasted to create the surface, allowing some interpolation at the edges for smoother edge effects in some cases. 0 by default.

Pixel Size

Size of pixels in the created surface, in the specified unit of measure.

Same size in X and Y direction

If checked (default), any edits in the X pixel size will also update the Y pixel size, for "square" pixels.

Method

Gravity, Kriging, Median-Polish Kriging, No Interpolation or Triangulation (flat). The type of interpolation algorithm (model) used to create the surface. Options other than Kriging will appear only if the optional Surface Tools extension has been installed.

Neighbors

Appears when using the Gravity, Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method. The number of neighboring points to consider when making the interpolation. Manifold will automatically use all points as neighbors for interpolations up to 1000 points. Note that it is faster to use all points as neighbors up to 1000 points than it is to use some subset of points (such as, only 990 neighbors out of 1000 points).

Model

Appears when using the Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method. Choose Auto (default), Exponential, Gaussian, Linear, Power, Rational or Spherical interpolation models. The Auto setting allows Manifold to choose which of the interpolation models it thinks will work best in this case.

Linear, Power, Rational or Auto choices will appear only if the optional Surface Tools extension has been installed.

Use only Voronoi neighbors

Interpolate over each location using only those neighbors that would be adjacent in a Voronoi diagram. This helps achieve a balance between a too-smooth interpolation achieved with a high number of neighbors and a too-coarse interpolation achieved with a low number of neighbors. Using this option will increase processing time.

Use radius

Appears when using the Gravity, Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method. The distance in the given units from any data point over which an interpolation can extend. Not checked by default to allow Manifold to choose the radius.

Save error surface as

Appears when using the Kriging or Median-Polish Kriging method. Allows saving of an error surface using the given numeric type.

Set corner values to

Appears when using the triangulation method. Optionally set the values in the corners of the computed surface to the given values. If this option is used, the entire surface (to the full rectangular extents) will be interpolated using the corner values as anchors. If this option is not used, those regions outside the convex hull of the existing data points will remain invisible.

 

Notes

 

Images that represent raster data such as elevations, temperatures and other factors are often visualized as surfaces.

 

If a field named z, elevation, elev, e, height, hgt or h (case insensitive) exists in the drawing or table, Manifold will offer that by default as the field in the Height box. Files named longitude, latitude, lon, long, lat, x or y (case insensitive) will be offered as the X / long or Y / lat box fields by default.

 

Attempting to create a surface larger than 16 million pixels (4,000 x 4,000) will trigger a confirmation dialog that will ask "Surface size is (x dimension) x (y dimension) pixels. Paste anyway?"

 

The Paste as Surface dialog will automatically compute and display the dimensions and size of the surface that will be created. Surface sizes larger than gigabytes are displayed in terabytes ("Tbytes"), petabytes ("Pbytes") and exabytes ("Ebytes"), although as a practical matter on most computers such very large surfaces are too large to create or display due to a lack of free disk space or other limitations.

 

Using the No interpolation option when pasting a surface from a drawing or a table will result in a surface being created as a series of facets that are not interpolated between the exact location of the given data points. Rather than appearing smooth when zoomed in, the surface will appear pixilated.

 

After pasting a drawing or table as a surface, when the surface is opened the Notes pane will list the interpolation parameters that were used to create the surface.

 

See Also

 

See the Creating Surfaces from Drawings and Tables topic for some notes and an example.